‘Q’ is for Quotation marks

InveKvluSNCsAhrPdbhf_the_letter_qI was initially going to talk about current usage of quotation marks, also known as ‘speech marks’ or ‘inverted commas’, but I was curious about the origins of the marks themselves, so decided to do some research. However, rather than reinventing the wheel, so to speak, I found an excellent article which is an excerpt of author Keith Houston’s Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols, and Other Typographical Marks. If you want the details on quotation marks, then head to this link (click here) for a fascinating read. But I will endeavour to sum it up here.

Houston traces quotation marks back to the early Greeks at the Library of Alexandria in the second Century BC. Apparently, a librarian named Aristarchus was helping edit and clarify the library’s holdings, which at that time comprised handwritten papyrus scrolls. He used an arrow-type character (>) called a diple (double) to mark in the margins of text of noteworthy interest, and a ‘dotted diple’ to mark passages where he differed with the reading of other critics. Then the early Christian church came along and applied the diple to clarify the words of Jesus Christ and his disciples in scripture. Latin took over from Greek and parchment books replaced papyrus scrolls.

However, the diple and the double diple were given various jobs and were not applied consistently, and the marks were altered into various forms, including a dot placed in the wedge of the diple and the mark rotated into a ‘V’ with a dot cradled in the upraised arms. Thus, the traditional diple mark had disappeared by the end of the eighth century.

Handwritten books then gave way to the advent of printed material with the invention of the first movable type, and this had its effect on quotations. Printers experimented with different ways to handle quoted text — alternative typefaces, parentheses and so on. Some books did not even bother with distinguishing quotes.

The diple returned as double commas at the start of the 16th century, derived from the slanted virgule (/), used to indicate a brief pause. However, the mark was still applied to the margin against lines with quoted text though not precisely indicating the start and finish of a quote. Bishop John Fisher, in a work published in 1525, was the first to orient the commas so that they ‘opened’ towards the text. Commas in the outer margin of right-hand pages were set as normal, while those on left-hand pages were rotated 180 degrees or ‘inverted’.

But this was by no means the end of the story, as usage was haphazard and Latin quotations were often placed in italics which gave rise to the still current practice of using italics to highlight names and quoted or referenced material. Houston writes that it was around the end of the 16th century that quotation marks took two significant steps: inverted commas moved to the body of the text itself; and quotation marks were first used to indicate direct speech.

The arrival of the novel in the 18th century pushed the need for quotation marks further as novelists ‘quoted’ their characters’ speech with all its accents and slang intact. Writers started to indicate changes in speakers with paragraph breaks and explicitly opening and closing quotations. There was no more tackling the tedious task of placing quotation marks against each line. Printers cast the double quotes in single blocks of lead, doing away with the need to apply separate pairs of commas, and both America and England agreed on the practice of enclosing quoted text with matching pairs of opening and closing marks.

One would surmise that now the consistent usage of quotation marks was set in stone (or lead!) but Britain diverged from America’s use of double quote marks in the 20th century, opting for single marks for direct speech, while double quotes were relegated to reported speech.

And this is merely a brief summary of the article, which in itself has been condensed! I hope this helps you understand more about the quotation mark and what I am about to say about its current use.

Whether you decide to go with the American style of double quotation marks or the British style of singular ones, if the person you quote is in turn quoting someone else, then the internal quote will use the alternative mark, and that is singular used within speech that starts with double quote marks, and vice versa.


‘B’ is for brackets

BletterMy reference for this blog is The Cambridge Guide to English Usage by Pam Peters. Brackets come in various types for a host of different jobs. The most common brackets, of course, are the ones referred to with the fancy word Parentheses ( ) or simply “round brackets”. These enclose the parenthesis or parenthetical comment which basically breaks down to an aside that is inserted into a sentence but is not needed for the sentence to make sense. However, the comment may add some useful information about the topic discussed immediately before the opening bracket. A pair of commas or dashes can also be used instead of the brackets in many instances. The guide goes into the debate about the use of these forms, but I will try to keep it as simple as possible in this blog.

Parentheses (besides being used like this) can also be applied to:

* enclose optional additions to a word, when the author wants to allow for alternative interpretations or applications of a statement. For example: The topic(s) for the assignment will be discussed in class. Note that in this instance there is no space between the word and the optional “s”.

* enclose numbers or enumerative letters (letters used instead of a number). Within text they will have brackets on either side: (1), (2) etc., but in the margin the second bracket is enough: a)

* enclose a whole sentence which forms a parenthesis within a paragraph.

* provide for author-date references.

The second type of brackets are square brackets [ ] which are conventionally used in prose to indicate editorial additions to the text, whether they explain, correct, or just comment on it. Square brackets are also used in mathematics and in linguistics.

Another form of brackets in use with maths and linguistics are braces { } or simply “curly brackets”.  I will not go into detail about these forms of brackets as they are not usually seen in general prose writing.

Slash brackets / /, also called diagonal brackets or “slashes” are commonly used to separate numbers in a date. They also find a place in linguistics.

One form of brackets that I am not familiar with is the Angle bracket 〈 〉, which (you guessed it!) is used in maths and linguistics.

Punctuation in association with brackets (parentheses) depends on the structure of the sentence around it. If the sentence would usually have a comma after the word immediately before the inserted comment, then the comma will be placed immediately after the closing bracket. Similarly, if the sentence ends immediately before the inserted comment, then the full stop will appear immediately after the closing bracket. However, if the bracketed comment stands as an independent sentence, then it will occur after the full stop, and in this instance contain a full stop just before the closing bracket. (I hope you are not confused.)

The other thing to remember about the comment within the bracket is that the first word will be in lower case unless (as in my example above) it is a standalone sentence, or it contains the title or name of something that would normally be capped.

You have now completed my crash course on brackets.


Literacy in the Internet Age

I was recently asked to do a talk at a Rotary meeting on the topic of literacy. I felt honoured, and decided to talk about the effect of the internet on literacy, especially the changes occurring with youth in their communication online, and even offline. Here is my presentation:


The Egyptians used various icons of animals, plants, people and other symbols to tell a story about their lifestyle thousands of years ago. It was a simple way for them to communicate however the ‘pictograms’ that are popularly associated with this ancient language are not literal but partly representative of letters in their alphabet.

Hey, but our English language doesn’t use iconic symbols, isn’t that right?



Many of you, especially if you utilise social media, will be familiar with emoticons. They are a product of the internet age; as young people especially can replace whole words, mostly communicating a feeling or emotion in just a few key strokes on their mobile phone or computer keyboard. The key strokes combination is translated into an icon, such as a heart or a smiley face, which tells the person at the other end of the communication that they love or like something, or are happy about something. Replace the colon in the smiley face combination with a semi-colon, and the result is a winking smiley face that suggests the person is joking about something or is telling the recipient not to take what is said too seriously.

So what has brought on this iconography on social media?

Before the internet, we all learnt how to read and write, and our communication with each other was mainly verbal face to face or we wrote a letter. Some of us may have learnt to type, but even then, we reserved typed letters for formalities such as job applications and business letters.  Most of us had the ability to write quickly and efficiently, and were unrushed as replies took weeks to get back to us. Perhaps we’d end a letter with a smiley face or a sketch, but that would be it. The phone was the most immediate communication available for contact at a distance, and again our verbal abilities had no need for icons and symbols.

The internet has only really being with us since the 1990s, but its impact has been enormous. Suddenly, people could communicate in writing with each other instantly, and many without keyboard skills had to search and tap with one or two fingers. Facebook only emerged 10 years ago, along with Twitter and other social media. Social media became available not only on computers but on smart phones and other devices such as iPods, iPads etc.

Young people wanted to keep in touch with their friends but their lack of keyboard skills made it a slow process. The answer was to create a kind of shorthand that used abbreviations and symbols to get the message across faster. A colon and a close bracket looked like a smiling face on its side, a less than sign and the numeral 3 combined to make a heart on its side. And thus the first crude emoticons took form. Social media saw the potential, and made it possible to transform the crude forms into proper smileys, hearts and a host of other pictograms.

Actually, the crude emoticon smiley face has been around since the 1980s, but its use did not come into its own until the internet age.

Now, the other side of this need to shorten social media texts is to abbreviate, and young people especially have created so many abbreviations that a not so social media literate person is left confused by what is almost another language.

Try this one for size: ‘OMG! M8 IDK cos YOLO. BTW GTG but BRB’.

Who knows what I said? It translates to ‘Oh My God! mate, I don’t know because you only live once. By the way, I’ve got to go but I’ll be right back’.

Some of the other popular abbreviations include:

ATM: Not a banking device for withdrawing money but ‘At the moment’.

IRL: In real life

BBY: Baby

Soz/sozza: Sorry

LMS: like my status

ILY: I love you. This is more a casual term for affection rather than something more serious.

LOL: Laugh out loud

ROFL: Roll over floor laughing

The act of abbreviation will even extend to verbal conversation. You will often hear teenagers now saying LOL, YOLO and shortened or re-invented words.

Young people have also invented their own slang terms that they will use on and off their online chat sessions. Here are a few that are gaining acceptance into the language:

Derp: Something that is silly or dumb, clumsy

Nek Minnut: Next minute

Troll: Someone who spans, tricks or deliberately insults and criticises others.

Fan girl/boy: A girl or boy who is an excited fan about something or someone.

Facepalm: The act of expressing a sense that something/someone is foolish, hence slapping your forehead, but instead of doing it, you write or say the word.

Selfie: A photo of yourself taken by yourself (usually on a mobile phone or iPod)


Teens will also leave out words and punctuation in order to further shorten what they are texting or saying. For example, ‘Nek minnut trips over’ instead of ‘In the next minute he trips over’.

A number of existing words have been given new meaning or adapted for the internet and computer usage.

‘Text’ is now a verb used to describe the act of keying in text for a mobile phone message.

‘Hardware’ has been adapted from its common meaning of hammers, nails etc to refer to the physical parts of a computer.

Nobody’s in trouble when you ‘save’ on a computer. You are simply retaining the data and information on a digital ‘file’ to the computer.

You might still get caught in the ‘web’ but there is no spider to bother you. The web describes the visible portion of the internet that embraces web sites throughout the world.

You won’t catch fish or butterflies with this ‘net’, which is short for the internet or the network of computer servers that service the web.

There is no need to drive anywhere to go to these ‘addresses’ as they are the coding for finding web sites on the internet.

Friend has become a verb as ‘to friend someone’ or include them on your social media account, giving them access to your ‘posts’ that have nothing to do with letters but statements and comments you place on your social media account site for others to read.

There is no small rodent involved when the computer user talks about their mouse, which is the device used to ‘navigate’ around any computer program without keying in directions.

Just like finding your place in a book, you can use a digital ‘bookmark’ to mark websites that you use regularly, enabling you to find them easily.

When I talk about the ‘cloud’, you don’t have to look up or out the window. I’m not talking about those puffy things in the sky. The ‘cloud’ on the internet is a storage site online where you can place your documents and digital photos, and access them from any computer linked to the internet anywhere in the world.

‘Ports’ are no longer somewhere ships can dock, but digital pathways on your computer.

But the internet has also made it necessary to create new words to describe things that don’t exist in the physical world. Here are some new terms that have come out as a result of the internet and computers:

Software: Digital system that enable computer users to perform different functions such as wordprocessing, displaying and manipulating digital photos, keeping accounts and so on.

Browser: A software package that lets you view web pages, graphics and most online content.

Email: Essentially electronic mail. Email software enables users to send and receive messages, letters, documents and photos in digital format.

Blog: Short for ‘web log’ which is a modern online writer’s column. People can talk about anything or create blogs on specific topics that interest them, and others can read these blogs. The act of creating a blog is called ‘blogging’.

Download/Upload: The process of transferring a file from online to your computer or from your computer to online.

Malware: A malicious software used by hackers to gain access to your computer and files.

Phishing: Methods used to defraud people of their personal accounts.

Punctuation marks have also not escaped the impact of the internet on our language. People have adapted some punctuation marks to get around issues presented by this new medium for expression. At this stage, social media users cannot italicise words to place emphasis on words or phrases. Instead they use forward strokes before and after the word or phrase.

Similarly, the rarely used tilde (~) has been brought in to replace a dash for quotes and the author of a quote.

The asterisk (*) is used to indicate a corrected word or phrase and can be placed before or after the word or phrase.

The hash (#) has also been given new life as a hashtag that is used to highlight a topic in social media, allowing others to find comments and posts that are tagged as such.

The ‘at’ sign (@) has been given the job of linking to a person’s profile and in email addresses. It is also growing in use on signs, posters and advertisements as a contemporary sign for ‘at’ such as ‘come to the show @ 4pm’.

It is curious that these rarely used punctuation marks are now gaining new jobs while common punctuation marks – like commas and apostrophes – are being abandoned. Young people especially, don’t want to be burdened with applying traditional grammar rules if they can get away with dispensing with punctuation and spelling, to get the message across as quick and as efficient as possible. Social media has become a creative ground for a new kind of shorthand – Words and phrases are shortened or abbreviated, any ‘unnecessary’ words are dropped, and symbols used to convey whole words and phrases.

What does this mean for literacy in our Brave New Generation? Literacy has become more visual and less about words and their construction. Ambiguity has crept in where words and misspellings, mis-punctuation can mean other things. The new generations don’t know the difference between the possessive itsand the contraction it’sfor it is. They mix up there, theirand they’re. And yourand you’re. They have no idea of past and present tenses.

However, the evolvement of a new form of shorthand visual language demonstrates how the Brave New Generation can adapt to a new way of communicating. Language is always evolving. English is a complex language with roots in German, Latin languages, French, Norse and older European. We don’t use the thee’s and thou’s of an older form. Literacy is about effectively been able to understand each other through our written and spoken word. Keep your hand on the tiller to explore the seas of the internet age.

Oh dash … double dash!

English: CMOS 16 cover image.

English: CMOS 16 cover image. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I was intrigued when Port Yonder Press in a Facebook discussion talked about the em dash being used in dialogue (among other things) when speech is interrupted. This was according to the Chicago Manual of Style, which is the bible for editors in America. My editing experience is from an Australian perspective where we often use the ellipsis points (…) as an indication of interrupted speech or where words are omitted. I thought I’d go to the Australian Style Manual for authors, editors and printers, and what I found was quite interesting.

I discovered that the manual talks about the 2-em rule which can be used for sudden breaks and omissions. I go on to quote here my sixth edition on page 107:

A 2-em rule can be used to mark an abrupt break in direct or reported speech: 

I distinctly heard him say, ‘Go away or I’ll —— ‘ 

In this instance a space is used to separate the rule from the preceding word because a complete word is missing. If only part of the word is missing, no space is used:

It was alleged that D—— had been threatened with blackmail.

The double em dash is solid in the manual but I just had to use two em rules in succession here.

The use of the ellipsis is differentiated in the manual (page 110) in that they are primarily used to show an omission of a word or words from quoted material. It goes on to say that ellipsis points can also signify indecision and incompleteness.

Well, as they say (hey, it’s always those clever people called ‘they’!), you learn something new every day.

The Interro what?!

Interrobang big

Interrobang big (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I would like to see this rare punctuation mark in common usage. It has the strange name of Interrobang or interabang and it looks like the picture on the left. And as you can see, it is a combination of a question mark and an exclamation mark. If you use Microsoft Word, then you will find it under ‘more symbols’ with the character code 203D. I recognise the first part of its name associates with the word ‘interrogate’ or ‘to question’, and I’d like to think it is a question with a ‘bang’.

How many times has a writer frustrated over whether to end a sentence with a question mark or an exclamation, as both appear necessary? This is where the handy Interrobang comes to the fore. For example, it suits the What the?! situation. Another example would be in dialogue where the character is shouting out an angry question. “Where do you think you’re going?!”

What do you think? Would you like to see the Interrobang in common usage?

Bad grammar — no job!


I read about a publishing house of technical literature that conducted a grammar test of all its prospective employees, whether they were involved in the editing side or handling the accounts, or manning the front desk … it did not matter what job they did, they had to pass the grammar test first or no job. If they confused their, there and they’re, or your and you’re, it’s and its, then they were shown the door. It is a strict condition of employment, and one that I wish mainstream media applied in Australia, as standards seem to have gone out the window, with news reporters on newspapers clueless on some of the basics of grammar, yet they have graduated with a degree supposedly qualifying them to be journalists.

I think the process of disintegration began in schools decades ago. English grammar was forgotten, to be replaced with the attitude that as long as the story was okay, spelling and grammar rules didn’t matter. I recall when I did my three years for my degree that the university (actually then called a college of advanced education) was forced to introduce some training in grammar rules as students were coming out of school without that knowledge. Of course, the lecturers and tutors could not suitably make up for all those years that grammar had been neglected, and cadets on newspapers and on television and radio news teams were ill prepared. You cannot blame the new journalists themselves, as the system had failed to emphasise the importance of grammar in communicating the right message in their news reporting.

Thus began the downward slide through the ranks. Young  reporters were promoted to sub-editing positions. They had the smarts to pin down a great news story but the expression was lacking. Then, as editors, they failed to pick up all the errors that appeared, and newspapers and captions on TV news showed more and more silly mistakes. What has made it worse is that news groups adopted differing styles for spelling of some words, for example, some adopting upper case to describe names of things while others went for lower case, or hyphenation verses no hyphenation (co-ordinate or coordinate). Reporters began to “leave it to the editors” but not all the editors were much better than the reporters.

I can only speak for regional newspapers in Australia, but I have also noticed glaring errors in captioning on TV news. To their credit, news groups such as the one that employs me have made some effort to address these shortcomings through training sessions, but it is all too little, too late, for many. And, I’m afraid, the rot now has reached the editor level (as in the person who leads the newsroom) … the person with the capital ‘E’ editor who should have impeccable grammar skills.

I know that no person can be perfect in their English expression, and we all make mistakes from time to time, but when the basics are forgotten or confused, then it contributes to the whole dumbing down of the population. So, getting back to the original thought that spurred this post, perhaps media, especially newspapers (and that includes online content providers) should require all its cadets to undertake a grammar test before being employed. Then, just maybe, we can stop the slide.